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Friday, September 27, 2013

Did you know...

Did you know that Pygopagus conjoined twins account for 17% of conjoined twins?

We have recently posted vol.18 no.1 of East and Central African Journal of Surgery on Bioline. The case study "Successful surgical separation of conjoined twins: First experience in Rwanda" by Nyundo et al. details the first successful separation of Pygopagus conjoined twins in Rwanda. Pygopagus conjoined twins are "joined back-to-back, facing away from each other". The article includes photos and details about the procedure, as well as more background information about conjoined twins.

For other articles from this issue, go to: http://www.bioline.org.br/titles?id=js&year=2013&vol=18&num=01&keys=V18N1

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Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Did you know...

Did you know that the use of bleaching agents increases dental enamel permeability?

Vol.12 no.2 of Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences includes "Evaluation of human enamel permeability exposed to bleaching agents" by Horning et al. This study evaluated various bleaching techniques to find out how different bleaching techniques affected dental permeability. A dye was used to show the degree of penetration on human teeth of four groups; Group 1 did not use a bleaching agent, while the other groups used 35% hydrogen peroxide for various numbers of 10 minute applications.

For this article and others from this issue, go to: http://www.bioline.org.br/titles?id=os&year=2013&vol=12&num=02&keys=V12N2

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Monday, September 23, 2013

Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol.16 No.4 & Vol.17 No.1

241 Nigeria mountainsJournal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management was updated on Bioline at the end of July. Here are some highlights from this update, which includes issues from both vol.16 & 17:

Vol.16 no.4 includes "Malaria Parasitemia and Anaemia among Pregnant Women in Umuahia Metropolis" by Amadi & Nwankwo, which studies the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anaemia among pregnant women in two hospitals in Abia State, Nigeria between April and October 2010. Out of 500 women, 270 (54%) were tested positive for malaria parasites, and out of these 270 women, 254 (94.1%) tested positive for anaemia.
For details of this study and other articles from this issue, go to: http://www.bioline.org.br/titles?id=ja&year=2012&vol=16&num=04&keys=v16n4

Vol.17 no.1 includes "Protected areas for environmental sustainability in Nigeria" by Imasuen et al. which discusses the definition of "protected areas", the historical background of these protected areas in Nigeria, and comparisons between modern cities and older cities in Nigeria. Guidelines for contemplating the next strategy for these protected areas are also given.
For this article and others from this issue, go to: http://www.bioline.org.br/titles?id=ja&year=2013&vol=17&num=01&keys=v17n1

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Thursday, September 19, 2013

Did you know...

Did you know that in developing countries, Helicobacter pylori infection mostly occurs in children?

Vol.23 no.1 of the Iranian Journal of Pediatrics includes "Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children, a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in West Iran" by Soltani et al., which investigated the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children in Sanandaj, West Iran. This infection could be an indicator of peptic ulcer or gastric cancer discovered later on in life. The results showed that
Helicobacter pylori infections were prevalent in children in Sanandaj, West Iran.

For this article and others from this issue, go to: http://www.bioline.org.br/titles?id=pe&year=2013&vol=23&num=01&keys=V23N1

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Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine Vol.11 No.1, 2 & 3

Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine vol.11 was posted on Bioline last month. Here are some interesting highlights from each of the issues:

Vol.11 no.1 includes "An exploratory study to develop a practical ethical framework for reproductive health research" by Farajkhoda et al, which is a study done to evaluate the need for an appropriate ethical framework for reproductive health research. This study was carried out by obtaining qualitative answers first through open-ended questions via email and analyzing the findings. The categories of the framework included:

  • management of the research process
  • protection of participants' rights
  • third party consent
  • gender sensitive research and
  • conflict of interest
This ethical framework can help health care practitioners respect the rights of their clients.
For this article and others from this issue, go to: http://www.bioline.org.br/titles?id=rm&year=2013&vol=11&num=01&keys=V11N1

Ramadan's conclusion in early August coincides with our posting of the second issue of vol.11. This issue includes "Does Ramadan fasting have any effect on menstrual cycles?" by Yavangi et al., which evaluates the menstrual cycles of 80 college students before, after, and during fasting for Ramadan. The results indicated that 30% of women experienced a change in menstrual pattern during Ramadan.
For this article and others from this issue, go to: http://www.bioline.org.br/titles?id=rm&year=2013&vol=11&num=02&keys=V11N2

No.3 includes "The influence of social network on couples' intention to have the first child" by Khadivzadeh et al., which studies the affect of social networks on the intentions of a couple to have their first child in Mashhad, Iran. This 2011 study conducted qualitative interviews with 24 participants.
For more details of this study and the complete results, as well as other articles from this issue, go to: http://www.bioline.org.br/titles?id=rm&year=2013&vol=11&num=03&keys=V11N3

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Monday, September 09, 2013

Esha Homenauth: A Student Perspective: Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia in the Developing World

Pre-eclampsia is a condition that occurs as a result of elevated blood pressure during pregnancy. It can cause several health complications including eclampsia (seizures), kidney and liver damage, and, ultimately, death. Pre-eclampsia accounted for 63,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, and is characterized as the second direct cause of maternal mortality. According to the World Health Organization, living in a developing country increases the risk of dying due to complications of pre-eclampsia by 300 fold, compared to that of a developed country.(EngenderHealth, 2007. 15 p.)Multiple randomized controlled trials show that magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is the essential, most effective, safe and affordable drug available to treat pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. However, only about half the countries in the world adhere to the WHO's recommendation to use MgSO4. In 2009, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for India was documented as 212/100,000 livebirths. MgSO4 is on the list of essential medicines in India, however many women succumb to eclampsia and this accounts for 26% maternal deaths In Maharashtra state, India.

A study by Chaturvedi et al, published in,vol. 31 no. 3 of the Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition is the first study of its kind that reports on the availability of treatment for eclampsia in public facilities throughout rural India. The researchers focused on the public sector with the knowledge that impoverished women are more likely to forgo treatment when accessing health care from private facilities due to financial limitations. MgSO4 was used exclusively in private facilities for eclampsia treatment; however, health professionals in the public industries were conflicted about the use of MgSO4 due to risky outcomes. The availability of MgSO4 injections was unevenly distributed among hospitals with some hospitals having more or less of the recommended number of 50 MgSO4 injections. Gaps in policy practice for the use of MgSO4, poor inventory management and poor monitoring processes are reasons suggested for the profound occurrences of eclampsia among pregnant woman in rural India.

As a Health Studies student, I find that this study provides important information regarding medical care provisions for women living in poverty in India to be a great inequality. Studies have been done that highlight the effect of the two-tiered health system in India on the health of local population and knowledge of the influence of the private sector stifling the minimal resources in India is well documented. However, this article focuses solely on the public sector. Though multiple studies address how inequality exists between developed and developing nations, this article focuses on how the effects of inequality trickles down to local populations through limited access to resources, in this case, the availability of MgSO4 treatment. As such, discrepancies in health outcomes exists between the public and private sector due to poorer pregnant women being unable to afford the drugs to treat the onset or pre-eclampsia or eclampsia.

In developed countries, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia may be a condition often unheard of, but in the developing world, half a million women are affected. With Bioline International providing open access to this journal, fundamental information targeted to these marginalized societies can be brought to attention and strategies can be implemented in order to prevent poorer women from being victimized.

Chaturvedi, S., Randive, B., Mistry, M. (2013) Availability of Treatment for Eclampsia in Public Health Institutions in Maharashtra, India. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 31(1), 78-85

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