Total antioxidant capacity increased in smokers who took fish oil supplements -- Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition Vol.31 No.3
This is our second consecutive post on the Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. Today we are featuring vol.31 no.3.
This issue includes "Protective Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on DNA Damage Induced by Cigarette Smoking" by Ghorbanihaghjo et al. This study examines the influence of fish oil supplements on 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and total antioxidant capacity of 40 healthy male smokers. Half of the smokers were given fish oil supplements to take once a day for three months, and the other half were given a placebo to take once a day for three months. 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and total antioxidant capacity of each person was taken through blood samples before and after the intervention. The results indicated that 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine significantly decreased and total antioxidant capacity was increased in the group taking fish oil supplements after three months. The study concludes that fish oil supplements can help increase antioxidant capacity.
This issue also includes "Food Insecurity and Its Sociodemographic Correlates among Afghan Immigrants in Iran" by Omidvar et al. This study examines the prevalence of food insecurity and sociodemographic determinants among Afghan immigrants in the cities of Mashad and Tehran in Iran. 310 females participated in a qualitative questionnaire. A locally-adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to measure food security. 60% reported to have moderate-to-severe food insecurity. 37% faced mild food insecurity, while 23% reported to be food secure. Food insecurity was more prevalent in Mashad than Tehran, and relatively high among Afghan immigrants overall.
For the complete results of these studies and other studies from this article, click here.
Labels: Afghan immigrants, antioxidant, cigarette smoking, DNA damage, fish oil, food, food insecurity, Iran, Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, placebo, sociodemographics, supplements
Almost 38% of pregnant women in this study were found to have prenatal vitamin A deficiency -- Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition Vol.31 No.2
This week we will be featuring the Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition on the blog.
Today we are featuring vol.31 no.2. This issue includes "Prevalence and Correlates of Prenatal Vitamin A Deficiency in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia" by Gebresalassie et al. This study examines the correlation and prevalence of prenatal vitamin A deficiency in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Seven hundred pregnant women were randomly selected for the study. High-performance liquid chromatography determined serum retinol concentration. Researchers analyzed data using logistic and linear regression. The results indicated that prenatal vitamin A deficiency was found in almost 38% of cases. The odds of having prenatal vitamin A deficiency was higher in women who did not have a self-earned income or education. Women between the ages of 35 and 49 had over 2 times the odds of having prenatal vitamin A deficiency than women between the ages of 15 and 24 years. The results also indicated that the lower the dietary diversity score before the survey, the higher the odds of vitamin A deficiency.
"Sleeping under Insecticide-treated Nets to Prevent Malaria in Nigeria: What Do We Know?" by Oneyeho is also featured in this issue. This study was conducted through focus group discussions in 3 geopolitcal zones in Nigeria to assess the usage of insecticide-treated nets to protect against the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. Through these focus group discussions, it was found that people had poor knowledge of mosquito bites and malaria, which resulted in improper usage. Among the improper usage was using the nets as door and window blinds with the misconception that this would protect the entire house. Only two nets were given per household. The study concluded that community structures such as places of worship could be used to educate the community about health and malaria.
These articles and other articles from this issue can be found here.
Labels: deficiency, insecticide, Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, malaria, nets, Nigeria, prenatal, retinol, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia, vitamin A
Leptospira prevalence is high in catfish and tilapia -- Tanzania Journal of Health Research Vol.16 No.2
Today we are featuring the Tanzania Journal of Health Research vol.16 no.2. It was updated on Bioline in July.
This issue includes "Leptospira infections in freshwater fish in Morogoro Tanzania: a hidden public health threat" by Mgode et al. This study looks at Leptospirosis, an infection which affects both animals and humans. The infection is caused by the spirochete bacterium genus of Leptospira. Birds and rodents have the capability of transmitting leptospires. This study aims to examine Leptospira in fish and assess the public health risk this could pose. Researchers examined 48 live tilapia, catfish and eel fish caught in Mindu Dam in the Morogoro Municipality in eastern Tanzania. Blood samples were collected for serological detection of leptospirosis using a microagglutination test, using local and reference Leptospira serovars Sokoine, Kenya, Pomona and Hebdomadis. 26 of the first tested positive for serovars Kenya and Sokoine. Leptospira prevalence was high in catfish and tilapia. The results indicated that different fish types are infected with Leptospira, and that fish could be a source of Leptospira infections in humans, especially because catfish and tilapia are widely consumed in Tanzania. The study concludes that further research on bodies of water such as dams and lakes needs to be done to assess public health risk.
This article also includes "Providing anti-retroviral therapy in the context of self-perceived stigma: a mixed methods study from Tanzania" by Tarimo & George. This mixed-method study examines how stigma and the perceived influence of stigma can affect the adherence of anti-retroviral therapy among patients prescribed anti-retroviral therapy and health care providers. 295 patients were given a survey. 95% of patients said they were satisfied at the services provided by the Care and Treatment Centres. 36% of patients said the set-up of care was associated with stigma. 30% said the line-ups were also a contributing factor to stigma. Influence of stigma on adherence to anti-retroviral therapy was further examined through focus group discussions with health care providers. In these discussions, health care providers mentioned that the set-up of Care and Treatment Centres created a friendly environment but violated confidentiality. They also said that many patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy hid identification cards to avoid being recognized, rushed to avoid being recognized, and in their rush picked up the wrong medicine. Lastly, health care providers said that some patients threw away the box with the manufacturer's instructions on it, and as a result took the wrong dosages. The study concluded that dosage instructions should be given in another form. The study also suggested that Care and Treatment Centre adopt a dispensing window for all patients and an appointment system could help reduce stigma and line-ups.
You can find these articles and other articles from this issue here.
Labels: Anti-Retroviral Therapy, blood, Care and Treatment Centres, catfish, eel, Featured New Issue, freshwater fish, infection, Leptospira, public health, stigma, Tanzania Journal of Health Research, tilapia
Coming Soon - Confronting the Challenge of Reproductive Health in Africa: A Textbook for Students and Development Practitioners
We are pleased to announce that an exciting new book will be released from The Women's Health and Action Research Centre (WHARC), which publishes the African Journal of Reproductive Health (ARJH), a journal available on Bioline. The book will be released on September 30, 2014.
The book is titled Confronting the Challenge of Reproductive Health in Africa: A Textbook for Students and Development Practitioners. It is edited by the Editor-in-chief of ARJH, Professor Friday Okonofua, a professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Benin, Nigeria.
In the foreword of the book, it is mentioned that there are few textbooks and courses integrated in the curriculum of the field of sexual and reproductive health at the university level in Africa. In addition, indigenous practitioners are few in number and receive little funding. Confronting the Challenge of Reproductive Health in Africa offers students, practitioners and policymakers an in-depth and easy-to-read scientific look at the history, practices and principles of the field of reproductive health in Africa and aims to promote the field for the development of Africa.
The book goes beyond providing information by engaging the individual and inspiring conversation for further research and policies to be created from what is currently implemented. Among the topics discussed are maternal mortality, unsafe abortion, female genital mutilation, infertility, family planning and gender-based violence. Confronting the Challenge of Reproductive Health in Africa is comprised of 19 chapters, written by contributors who have years of experience in research and programming in the field of sexual and reproductive health.
To purchase the book, you can contact the Women's Health and Action Research Centre through the following:
+234 817 635 8767
Labels: Africa, African Journal of Reproductive Health, gynaecology, obstetrics, policy, practices, reproductive health, sexual health, students, textbook
Patients who received analgesics intravenously were reported to have better post-operative pain management - Tanzania Journal of Health Research Vol.16 No.1
Vol.16 no.1 of the Tanzania Journal of Health Research is being featured on the blog today.
This issue includes "Postoperative pain management outcomes among adults treated at a tertiary hospital in Moshi, Tanzania" by Masigati et al. This study examines the challenges and effects of post-operative pain when left untreated in patients at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania from August 2011 to March 2012. Pain and satisfaction numerical rating scales were used to assess the satisfaction and post-operative pain of patients. These assessments occurred 24 hours and 48 hours after operation on 124 patients. Over 45% of patients reported to have experienced pain when resting, and 44% experienced pain during movement. Patients who received analgesics intravenously were reported to have better post-operative pain management than patients who received intramuscular analgesics.
This issue also includes "Knowledge and perception on tuberculosis transmission in Tanzania: Multinomial logistic regression analysis of secondary data" by Ismail & Josephat. Tuberculosis is an ongoing health concern in Tanzania and was declared a national public health emergency in 2006. Multinominal Logistic Regression analysis was used to measure the effect of knowledge of TB. Data from the 2007-2008 Tanzania HIV/AIDS national survey and the Malaria Indicator Survey. The results indicated that the higher the age and education, the higher knowledge of TB. The results also indicated that people in urban areas had higher TB knowledge than people in rural areas. People who owned a radio or telephone had greater knowledge than those who did not. The study concluded that socio-economic factors such as age, education and place of residence, as well as owning a telephone or radio, systematically affected knowledge of tuberculosis transmission.
For these articles and others from this issue, click here.
Labels: adults, age, education, HIV/AIDS, knowledge, pain, patients, post-operative pain, Tanzania, Tanzania Journal of Health Research, tertiary hospital, transmission, tuberculosis
Over 80% of motorcycle accidents in Brazil resulted in fractures -- Tanzania Journal of Health Research Vol.15 No.4
Today we are featuring our fifth post on the Tanzania Journal of Health Research with vol.15 no.4.
This issue includes "Influence of gender on prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigerian schoolchildren and adolescents" by Maruf et al. This article aims to examine the correlation between gender and weight of students in Nigeria. The age and gender of the students was collected through the school records. Data such as height, weight, BMI were collected through standard techniques. 9014 students age 2-18 from 28 randomly selected schools were examined for this study. The results indicated that age groups played a role in whether males or females had a higher BMI. Among the results suggested that among students age 2-6 years, males had higher BMIs than females, and that for the age groups 11-14 and 15-18, females had significantly higher BMIs than males. The study concludes than in early childhood, males have a higher BMI than females and in adolescence, females have a higher BMI than males.
Motorcycles are commonly used in the developing world. "Motorcycle Accidents: Morbidity and Associated Factors in a city of Northeast of Brazil" by Cavalcanti et al. looks at the causes and incidence of mortality from motorcycle accidents. The study examined 9743 cases of patients who checked in at the Regional Emergency and Trauma Hospital of Campina Grande in Paraiba, Brazil between January to December 2009. The results indicated that motorcycle accidents made up over 20% of cases. Of those cases, over 85% involved men. Of these cases involving men, almost 34% were between the ages of 21 to 29 years. The body parts most affected in these accidents were legs and feet, which were affected in 55.2% of cases. Arms and hands were affected in almost 27% of cases. Over 80% of cases involved fractures. Over 15% of cases involved amputation. Only 1.3% of cases resulted in death. The study concluded that motorcycle accidents affect mostly young men and cause fractures and lesions predominantly in the lower limbs. The study recommends that education and policy surrounding traffic safety and motorcycles need to be examined.
You can find these articles and other articles from this issue here.
Labels: adolescents, BMI, females, gender, males, motorcycle, Nigeria, schoolchildren, schools, students, Tanzania Journal of Health Research, weight
Clinical practices could affect immunisation delay of infants - Tanzania Journal of Health Research Vol.15 No.3
Today we are featuring Tanzania Journal of Health Research Vol.15 No.3 on the blog.
|Source: Pete Lewis/Department of International Development|
This issue includes "High prevalence of tuberculosis diagnosed during autopsy examination at Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania" by Kilale et, which examines the failures of diagnosing TB, leading to premature death and unrecognized transmission of TB. The aim of the study was to obtain quantitative data on TB cases identified during the autopsy and retrieve missed TB cases that were not previously reported in Tanzania. The study was conducted at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Records were obtained for each patient included demographic information, past medical history, chest-xray reports, clinical diagnoses and causes of death, among others. Lung tissues, lymphnodes and blood clots for HIV testing were also collected. Tissues were examined by microscopy and processed through Ziehl Nielsen staining. Among the 74 patients, 56 were males. The results also indicated that 34 patients received a TB diagnosis before death.
Immunisation of infants is extremely important to prevent infant mortality and spread of preventable diseases. "Factors contributing to delay in commencement of immunisation in Nigerian infants" by Sadoh et al. discusses this topic in-depth. The study examines the factors that prevent or delay immunisation in Benin City, Nigeria. 153 mothers bringing their infants for their first immunisation to the Institute of Child Health Child Welfare clinic at the University of Benin in Benin City were asked questions for the study. Times for bringing in their infants varied between mothers. Only two mothers had their infants immunised within 24 hours of birth, with 66 mothers had their infants immunised at a week old or younger. Among the reasons for not having their infants immunised within 24 hours was that Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine for tuberculosis was only administered on a specific day. There were also mothers who were not knowledgeable of when infants should be immunised. The results indicated that mothers from a low socio-economic class and mothers with less than 12 years of schooling were less likely to have their infants immunized at a week old or younger. The study suggests that clinics change their practices to allow for daily immunisation, as well as training of health care practitioners on the importance of immunisation as soon as possible.
These articles and other articles from this issue can be found here.
Labels: autopsy, Dar es Salaam, HIV, immunisation, infants, mothers, Muhimbili National Hospital, Nigeria, Tanzania Journal of Health Research, tuberculosis, vaccine
49% of patients with HIV were diagnosed with heart failure in this study -- Tanzania Journal of Health Research Vol.15 No.2
This is our third post on the latest updated issues of the Tanzania Journal of Health Research on Bioline. Today we are featuring vol.15 no.2.
This issue includes "Factors associated with, and echocardiographic findings of heart failure among HIV infected patients at a tertiary health care facility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania" by Bakari et al. This study aims to unpack the factors associated with heart failure among patients with HIV, as well as examine the echocardiographic findings. The study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital, a tertiary care facility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients with HIV who also had cardiac complaints between September 2009 and April 2010. 49% of patients were diagnosed with heart failure, which was confirmed by echocardiography. The most common causes of heart failure were hypertensive heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and dilated cardiomyopathy. The results indicated that heart failure was common among patients with HIV who also had cardiac complaints. The factors for heart failure were associated with both modifiable and non-modfiable factors.
This issue also includes "Comprehensive health workforce planning: re-consideration of the primary health care approach as a tool for addressing the human resource for health crisis in low and middle income countries" by Munga & Mwangu. This article includes a literature review of case studies of low- and middle-income countries and their use of the Primary Health Care and existing planning approaches toward the Human Resources for Health crisis. Data from Tanzania was also used in this study, as well as consultations with experts. This article also details a conceptual framework using Primary Health Care as its foundation. The article concludes that health workforce planning is not common in Human Resources for Health planning due to lack of knowledge, and that Human Resources for Health planning is important but cannot be used alone to ensure that the Human Resource Health crisis is eliminated.
You can find these articles and others from this issue here.
Labels: echocardiography, heart failure, HIV, human resources, planning, Primary health care approach, Tanzania, Tanzania Journal of Health Research