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Thursday, July 31, 2014

43% of 2136 adolescents reported to have seriously injured themselves -- Tanzania Journal of Health Research Vol.15 No.1

This is our second consecutive post on the Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Today we are featuring vol.15 no.1, which was updated on Bioline at the end of March 2014.

This issue includes "Knowledge, attitude and practices on family planning services among adolescents in secondary schools in Hai District, northern Tanzania" by Dangat & Njau. This study examines attitudes, knowledge and practices of family planning services among adolescents in 10 secondary schools in the Hai district in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted between April and June 2011 through a cross-sectional survey administered to 316 randomly selected students, of which the median age was 17 years old. The results indicated that about 71% of survey respondents said that family planning services should not be used by adolescents, and less than 6% of survey respondents had received family planning services in their lifetime.

This issue also includes "Self-inflicted serious injuries among adolescents in Zambia" by Muula et al. This study aims to uncover some of the factors and and prevalence of self-inflicted injuries among students in Zambia. The study was conducted using data from the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey to assess the prevalence within the last 12 months. Out of 2136 adolescents who did the survey, more than 43% were reported to have seriously injured themselves. Of these adolescents, almost 12% reported to have serious injured themselves on purpose. Emotions associated with a history of self-inflicted injury included sadness, suicidal behaviour, alcohol use and marijuana use.

For these articles and others from this issue, click here.

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Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Faith healers could serve as HIV educators at the community level - African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines Vol.8 No.5

Today we are featuring the African Journal of Traditional vol.8 no.5. This issue includes "Trends and challenges of Traditional Medicine in Africa", an article by Abdullahi that details the changes in traditional medicine over the past few decades, as well as the new shift toward traditional medicine. 

This issue also includes "A Controlled Study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Intervention with Faith Healers in Vhembe District, South Africa" by Mashamba et al. This article details a study conducted in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study entailed the HIV/AIDS training of 58 faith healers from the United African Apostolic Church in two municipalities of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The training was done over a period of two days. A group of 45 faith healers was used as a control group. Both groups were evaluated after two months. The results indicated that faith healers who received training had a greater knowledge of HIV/AIDS and some knowledge of TB. However, the management practices of HIV/AIDS such as risk behaviour counselling, testing referrals and community education of HIV/AIDS among other things were not significantly improved. The study concluded that faith healers could be useful in HIV prevention programmes and could serve as educators at the community level.

This issue also includes articles on the interactions and use of herbs and drugs. The first article, "Patient Counseling about Herbal-Drug Interactions" by Hussain comments on the complicated relationship between herbal medicines and medications when being taken at the same time. The second article, "Evaluation of Herbs as Potential Drugs/Medicines" by Odhiambo et al. looks at how 34 different types of plants could be used to treat human ailments, and which parts of the plant were most commonly used. The results indicated that Asteraceae and Leguminosae were among the plants most commonly used. The results also indicated that leaves and roots were the most common parts of the plant used.

You can find these articles and other articles from this issue here.

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Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Resistance to some TB drugs occurred only in new cases - Tanzania Journal of Health Research Vol.14 No.4

Today we are featuring the Tanzania Journal of Health Research. This is the second time we are featuring the journal on our blog--the first time it was featured was in former Bioline team member Esha's post on a Student Perspective of Immunization Delay in Nigerian Infants. The journal was first posted on Bioline in 2008, and since then Bioline has posted 270 of its articles. The journal was formerly called the Tanzania Health Research Bulletin and aims to examine and shed light on health research in Tanzania.

This is one of a series of posts on the journal we will be featuring in the next few days. Vol.14 no.4 was posted on Bioline in March 2014. This issue includes "Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern among pulmonary tuberculosis patients with or without HIV infection in Mwanza, Tanzania" by Range et al. This article examines the drug-resistance of Tuberculosis in new and relapsed TB cases. For the study, drug susceptibility was tested using sputum culture positive isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using four first-line TB drugs which consisted of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin. HIV status and demographic information among other information was collected. The results indicated that 7.8% of the isolates, resistance in new cases of TB to least one of the drugs was 7.3% and resistance in relapsed cases of TB was 12.5%. Resistance to just isoniazid was high in both new and relapsed cases, at 45.5% and 50%, respectively. Resistance to solely rifampicin and streptomycin only occurred in new cases of TB.

This issue also includes "How rational are indications for emergency caesarean section in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania?" by Mdgela et al. This article looks at the reasons and the basis for the increase in emergency caesarean sections at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania, and if practices following decisions of caesarean sections are followed. The study was carried out through examination of 345 women's files who had an emergency caesarean section. Some indicators included repeat caesarean sections, which was experienced by 30.2% of women, obstructed labour (14.4%) and foetal distress (13.6%).

For these articles and other articles from this issue, click here.

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Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Featured Issue: Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine Vol.11 No.12

What are the survival predictors of preterm neonates? Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine was recently updated on Bioline in March with vol.11 no.12, and includes an article that aims to uncover this question.

This issue includes "Survival predictors of preterm neonates: Hospital based study in Iran (2010-2011)" by Haghighi et al. This article assesses the factors for risk of neonatal mortality, as well as the factors affecting survival rate of pre-term infants in the Iranian population. 1612 pre-term infants born at 26-36 weeks at the Shahid Akbar-Abadi University Hospital from April 2010 to April 2011 were examined. Fetal-neonatal, maternal and pregnancy data was taken, and survival rates were analyzed. The results indicated that the total overall mortality rate for the infants was 9.1%. Infants at the lowest end of the birth weight spectrum had survival rates of 11.11%. The results indicated that birth weight under 1000mg dramatically influenced neonatal survival rate.

This issue also includes "Uterine cavity assessment in infertile women: Sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional Hysterosonography versus Hysteroscopy" by Ahmadi et al. This article examines the effects of the use of three-dimensional hysterosonography (3-DHS) to diagnose uterine abnormalities in women with infertility. The study was conducted at the Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran between 2010 and 2011, examining women with infertility issues who were referred to 3-DHS before in-vitro fertilization. The study also included women who underwent both a hysteroscopy and 3-DHS. The results indicated that sensitivity and specificity for 3-DHS was 68.4% and 96.3%, respectively. It was concluded that 3-DHS, in comparison to the hysteroscopy, was reliable in diagnosing uterine abnormalities.

For these articles and other articles from this issue, click here.

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Monday, July 07, 2014

Featured Issue: Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine Vol.11 No.11

This is our third post on the Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. We published two posts on the blog last week.

Today we are featuring no.11. This issue includes "Pregnancy rate after endometrial injury in couples with unexplained infertility: A randomized clinical trial" by Parsanezhad et al. This article examines how endometrial injury affects the pregnancy rate in couples who experience infertility. The study was conducted at the Shiraz University Infertility Clinic of Ghadir Hospital. 217 women between 23 to 35 years old with infertility were divided into two groups. One group underwent endometrial local injury, while the other did not. The results indicated that women who underwent endometrial local injury had a significantly higher pregnancy rate than women in the control group.

This issue also includes "Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis" by Borna et al. This study aims to determine the immunity rates of women with toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease. The study was carried out by looking at previous studies conducted up to 2012 and articles were selected based on positive anti toxoplasma IgG antibody or anti toxoplasma antibody in childbearing women. 13480 participants were examined. The results indicated that overall estimated prevalence of anti toxoplasma using the IFTA serological method was 34.5%. Overall estimated prevalence of anti toxoplasma antibody was 39.9%. The study concluded that prenatal screenings could help determine which mothers could be susceptible to toxoplasmosis. These screenings can also help determine the primary prevention of toxoplasmosis in areas where risk factors such as eating habits and hygiene exist. 

For these articles and other articles from this issue, click here.

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Friday, July 04, 2014

Featured Issue: Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine Vol.11 No.9

Today we are featuring the 9th issue of Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine vol.11. We will also be featuring no.10, 11 & 12 later this week. 

No.9 includes "Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?" by Binesh et al. This article details a study done at Shahid Sadoughi Madar hospitals to identify if there is a correlation in women between taking an oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and having an abnormal Pap smear. 1286 women who took OCP were examined and compared with a group of 1218 women using other contraceptive methods. Age, parity and socioeconomic factors were matched in each group. All the women in the study had single partners, were non-smokers and were taking OCP for at least five years. The results indicated that there is no significant correlation between taking OCP and having an abnormal Pap smear.

This issue also includes "Perinatal outcomes of pregnancies with borderline versus normal amniotic fluid index" by Asgharnia et al. This article looks at the differences in pregnancy outcomes of normal versus borderline amniotic fluid index (AFI). 235 women with singleton pregnancies at the Alzahra Medical Center were examined between 2009 and 2011. 141 women were in the normal AFI group while 94 women were in the borderline AFI group. The groups were evaluated based on maternal and fetal complications. SPSS was used to analyze data. Risks such as pre-term delivery and labour induction were higher in the borderline AFI group than the normal AFI group.

For these articles and others from this issue, click here.

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Thursday, July 03, 2014

Featured Issue: Biokemistri Vol.26 No.1

Today we will be featuring another issue from Biokemistri, vol.26 no.1. This issue includes "Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize-Planted, Kerosene-contaminated Ilorin Alfisol" by Adetitun et al., a study examining bacteria that could potentially be involved in the biodegrading or bioremediation of the environment, specifically petroleum-contaminated systems. The study took place in Nigeria, where 24 species of bacteria were extracted from Ilorin Alfisol treated with Kerosene. The results indicated that Kerosene spillage could pose a threat to the development and sustainability of Zea mays. The results also indicated that some bacteria live and even thrive in kerosene-contaminated soil.

This issue also includes "Processing method influences the effect of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) consumption on blood lipid profile in rats" by Oyabambi et al. This article examines how different Cassava processing methods and formulations have an effect on the lipid profile of test rats. Four groups of ten rats were formed, with each group receiving a different type of feed. One group received Garri, another on Cassava flour, the third on tapioca, and the fourth on regular feed. The results indicated that Garri and Cassava flour feed significantly increased HDL-cholesterol concentration, but the group given Garri feed had a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration than the group given Cassava flour feed.

You can find these articles and others from the issue here.

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Wednesday, July 02, 2014

Featured Issue: Biokemistri Vol.25 No.1, 2, & 3

Today we are featuring Biokemistri vol.25. In this blog post we will be featuring articles from all three issues of this volume.

No.1 includes "Evaluation of selected trace metals in some hypertensive subjects in a tertiary health institution in Southwest Nigeria" by Onuegbu et al. This article aims to explore the role of trace metals in people with primary hypertension. The study looks at the aetiological roles of trace metals such as zinc, manganese, copper, and selenium in 45 patients with primary hypertension and 47 patients who had normal blood pressure or were pre-hypertensive. The patients were examined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) to determine the serum levels of the trace metals, and each patient had their weight, BMI, height, and blood pressure recorded. The results indicated that the group with hypertension had higher concentration levels of zinc. The results also indicated that levels of copper, manganese and selenium did not differ significantly between the group with hypertension and the group with normal blood pressure and pre-hypertension.
You can find other articles from this issue here.

No.2 includes an editorial by Dr Femi Olorunniji giving a general overview of all the articles for this issue. He also introduces several new board members and gives background info on each. This issue also includes "The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and microbial contents of homemade soursop (Annona muricata L) fruit juice" by Vwioko et al. This article looks at the effects that garlic and ginger have on the storage life of homemade soursop juice, a popular fruit and juice consumed in many countries around the world. In this study, a control group of soursop juice without treatment were stored, and test groups of soursop juice were separately treated with garlic, ginger and sodium benzoate. The untreated juices were found to have the highest levels of contamination among the groups, and the group treated with sodium benzoate was found to have the lowest levels of contamination. Among the microogranisms found in all the groups were Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Acetobacter. All the treated groups of soursop juice were found to have slightly lower pH levels than the untreated group. The study concluded that the treatments could increase storage lifespan and reduce the risk of infection when consuming the soursop juice.
You can find other articles from this issue here.

Red wine has been reported in the media as having beneficial health properties. But there is more need for medical research to be done. No.3 includes "Use of atherogenic index of plasma in evaluating the potential cardioprotective effects of red wine consumption: Studies in Nigerian young adult volunteers" by Emokpae et al. assesses the factors predicting development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular occurences by examining, among other factors, atherogenic lipid of plasma, cardiac risk ratios, and atherogenic coefficient to test if red wine provides cardio protection in young adults. For the study, samples of blood were taken before giving the test subjects red wine. Blood samples were collected after the red wine, which was consumed within five minutes, was ingested for one hour. The results indicated that triglyceride levels increased in the subjects after they consumed red wine, but total cholesterol levels decreased.
For this article and other articles from this issue, click here.

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Tuesday, July 01, 2014

Featured Issue: Biokemistri Vol.24 No.3

Biokemistri has recently been updated on Bioline. Today we are featuring vol.24 no.3. 

This issue includes "The influence of zinc and selenium on some biochemical responses of Vigna unguiculata and Zea mays to water deficit condition and rehydration" by Semiu O. & Gbenga A. This article examines how zinc and selenium affect the biochemical reactions of cowpea and maize seedlings when they are subjected to conditions of rehydration and water deficit. In this study, cowpea and maize seedlings were subjected to water dehydration for two weeks. They were then tested to find their water content. Seedlings that were treated with selenium were found to have higher relative water content. When all samples were tested, it was found that seedlings had increased levels of the biochemical parameters tested. The results also indicated that the effects of water deficit were greater in maize seedlings than cowpea seedlings. The study concludes that antioxidate chemicals, especially selenium, are recommended to use for farmers that experience short-term drought.

This issue also includes "The effect of grower feed diet supplemented with Ganoderma lucidum against some enteric zoonotic parasites of pigeons (Columba livia)" by Osemwegie et al. This article looks at the effect of grower feed diet with mashed Ganoderma lucidum, also known as the Lingzhi mushroom, on zoonotic parasites of pigeons (Columba livia) in Benin City, Nigeria. For this study, pigeons were fed in wooden cages with saw-dusted floors, and then examined after 14 days. The results indicated that out of pigeons given feed not supplemented with Ganoderma lucidum, 77% of pigeons had Cestodes, also known as tapeworms. Nematodes and trematodes were also found among this group. The group of pigeons given feed supplemented with
Ganoderma lucidum were found to have low numbers of helminth parasites, and an overall decrease in weight. The study concluded that these pigeons had improved intestinal health among other findings. This information could be used when considering probiotics and supplements used in poultry farming.

For these articles and other articles from this issue, click here.

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